Table of Contents
The Republic of Albania
Albania is defined by its Constitution, which is the highest law in the country, as a Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Republic. The country also applies the international law that is binding on it.
“We, the people of Albania, proud and aware of our history, with responsibility for the
future, and with faith in God and/or other universal values,
with determination to build a social and democratic state based on the rule of law, and to
guarantee the fundamental human rights and freedoms,
with a spirit of religious coexistence and tolerance,
with a pledge to protect human dignity and personhood, as well as for the prosperity of the
whole nation, for peace, well-being, culture, and social solidarity,
with the centuries-old aspiration of the Albanian people for national identity and unity,
with a deep conviction that justice, peace, harmony, and cooperation between nations are
among the highest values of humanity,
We establish this Constitution…”
Location: Europe (Southeast Europe)
Bordered by Montenegro (north) – 186 km
Kosovo (northeast) – 112 km
Macedonia (east) – 181 km
Greece (southeast/south) – 212 km
Population (2015): 2,893,005
Capital: Tirana (the largest city)
Area (total): 28,748 km2
GDP (January 2015): $32.259 billion (total)
Currency: ALL (Albanian Lek)
Calling Code: +355
Internet TLD: .al
Highest point: Mount Korab, 2,764 m
Lowest point: Adriatic Sea, 0 m
Coastline: 362 km
Longest river: Drin River, 335 km
Largest inland lake: Shkodra Lake (Buna), 530 km2
Climate: Mediterranean climate (Mild temperate)
Terrain: Mountains, hills, small plains along coast, Alps in the north
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite,
chromites, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower
Map of Albania
1912 ►Albanian Declaration of Independence
On 28 November 1912 Albania declared independence from the Ottoman Empire.
1912–14 ►Independent Albania
Parliamentary state and assembly established in Vlorë on 28 November 1912. The government and Senate were established on 4 December 1912. Leader – Ismail Qemali.
1914–25 ►Principality of Albania
Short-lived monarchy headed by William, Prince of Albania, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1925.
1925–28 ► Albanian Republic
Official name as enshrined in the Constitution of 1925. A protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy after the Treaties of Tirana of 1926 and 1927.
1928–39 ► Kingdom of Albania
Constitutional monarchal rule between 1928 and 1939. A de facto protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy.
1939–43 ► Albanian Kingdom under Italy
A protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy which led by Italy’s King Victor Emmanuel III. Ruled by Italian governors after military occupation by Italy from 1939–43. Ceased to exist as an independent country. Part of the Italian Empire.
1943–44 ► Albanian Kingdom under Germany
A de jure independent country, between 1943 and 1944. Germans took control after the Armistice with Italy on 8 September 1943.
1944–92 ► People’s Socialist Republic of Albania
From 1944 to 1946 it was known as the Democratic Government of Albania. From 1946 to 1976 it was known as the People’s Republic of Albania.
since 1992 ► Republic of Albania
In 1991 the Socialist Party of Albania took control through democratic elections. In 1992 the Democratic Party of Albania won the new elections.
The President of Albania or the constitutional Institution of the republic based on the constitution of Albania is head of the state and represents the unity of the country. Currently, the head of the state in Albania is Ilir Meta and he was elected by the Albanian Parliament on April 28, 2017.
The Constitution defines the terms of the election, the mandate, dismissal, or the replacement of the president. Only Albanian citizens by birth, over the age of 40 are rightful to be elected for this post. The details and conditions for the presidential election are defined by Article no. 86 of the Constitution.
The Parliament of Albania is an institution legitimated by the will of Albanian people through their right to vote and elect their representatives. The parliament consists of 140 lawmakers that exercise the legislative power derived from the Albanian people for a term of four years. Therefore, the Parliament has the right to control other constitutional or legal institutions and impede them from taking decisions that are against to the will of people.
The Parliament has:
1. A legislative function
2. Electoral function
3. Controlling Function
The Ombudsman is an institution financed by the state budget, but independent from the Public Administration bodies and no one can give him/her instructions or orders. It protects the lights, freedom, and the interests of Albanian and foreign citizens that stay in Albania temporarily or permanently from the illegal or irregular acts and omissions of the Albanian public administration bodies. The Ombudsman has no executive power.
The law on the Ombudsman defines how the head of the institution is elected. He/she is elected for a five-year term.
The Prime Minister’s Office, known in Albanian as Kryeministria, is the principal workplace and residence of the Prime Minister of Albania, currently, Edi Rama. Situated on Martyrs of the Nation (Deshmoret e Kombit) Boulevard, the building was designed by Italian architect Gherardo Bosio in 1939. Since 1945 it served as the headquarters of the Council of Ministers and the State Protocol.
The Department of the Public Administration (DAP) aims to provide a strong civil service based on professionalism, merit, moral integrity and political impartiality.
DAP is the main public body responsible for the management and implementation of the civil service in all the bodies of the central administration, drafts and implements policies on wages for the creation of the public administration institution, drafting and implementing policies and general training programs.
The Official Gazette is the official periodical publication of the government that announces public and legal notices, and administrative acts. It publishes the laws adopted by the Parliament, the resolutions adopted by the Parliament, regulations and other normative acts adopted by the government, the Council of Ministers, and Ministries, and international agreements.
The General Prosecution of Albania is a constitutional body and at the same time the highest authority exercising the criminal prosecution and representing the accusation in court on behalf of the state. The General Prosecutor is also responsible for the carrying out a series of other duties assigned by law to the prosecution.
List of Government Ministries of Albania
Ministry of Health and Social Protection
Ministry of Education, Sport, and Youth
Institutions for foreigners
Important Financial Institutions
Ministry of Tourism and Environment
Albania’s Laws, Codes, and Statutes
Advocates’ Law (Eng here)
Albanian news websites
International financial institutions
International news websites